Reading and Resources

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Vision Health Initiative (VHI). Common eye disorders. https://www.cdc.gov/visionhealth/basics/ced/index.html

American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO). Retinal vein occlusion PPP – 2019. https://www.aao.org/preferred-practice-pattern/retinal-vein-occlusions-ppp

Hayreh SS, Zimmerman B, McCarthy MJ, Podhajsky P. Systemic diseases associated with various types of retinal vein occlusion. Am J Ophthalmol. 2001;131:61-77. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11162981/

MacDonald D. The ABCs of RVO: A review of retinal venous occlusion. Clin Exp Optom. 2014:97:311-323. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/cxo.12120

Rogers S, McIntosh RL, Cheung N, et al. The prevalence of retinal vein occlusion: Pooled data from population studies from the United States, Europe, Asia, and Australia. Ophthalmology. 2010;117:313-319. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2945292/

Rothman AL, Thomas AS, Khan K, Fekrat S. Central retinal vein occlusion in young individuals: A comparison of risk factors and clinical outcomes. Retina. 2019,39:1917-1924. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30085977/

Schmidt-Erfurth U, et al. Guidelines for the management of retinal vein occlusion by the European Society of Retina Specialists (EURETINA). Ophthalmologica. 2019;242:123-162. https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/502041

Clinical Trials

NIH US National Library of Medicine. ClinicalTrials.gov. https://www.clinicaltrials.gov

Patient Education

American Society of Retina Specialists (ASRS). https://www.asrs.org/patients

American Society of Retina Specialists (ASRS). Branch retinal vein occlusion. https://www.asrs.org/patients/retinal-diseases/24/branch-retinal-vein-occlusion

American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO). Branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) diagnosis. https://www.aao.org/eye-health/diseases/branch-retinal-vein-occlusion-diagnosis

American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO). Branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) treatment. https://www.aao.org/eye-health/diseases/branch-retinal-vein-occlusion-treatment

American Society of Retina Specialists (ASRS). Central retinal vein occlusion.https://www.asrs.org/patients/retinal-diseases/22/central-retinal-vein-occlusion

American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO). Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) diagnosis and treatment. https://www.aao.org/eye-health/diseases/central-retinal-vein-occlusion-diagnosis

Wills Eye Hospital. What is retinal vein occlusion? https://www.willseye.org/disease-retinal-vein-occlusion/

Resources from Professional Organizations

American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO). https://www.aao.org/about/who-we-are/overview

American Optometric Association (AOA). https://www.aoa.org/patients-and-public

American Society of Retina Specialists (ASRS). https://www.asrs.org/

National Eye Institute (NEI). https://www.nei.nih.gov/

PAN Foundation. https://www.panfoundation.org/disease-funds/retinal-vein-occlusion/

Retina Foundation. https://retinafoundation.com/procedures/retinal-vein-occlusions/

The Angiogenesis Foundation. http://www.scienceofrvo.org/about/

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Clinician Scientific & Educational Resources

The RELIEF Clinical Toolkit is an online tool that aims to provide clinicians with up-to-date information on the presentation, prognosis, pathophysiology, and treatment strategies for Retinal Vein Occlusion (RVO) in patients with diabetes who have or are at risk for developing RVO. Click on one of the options below to learn more about RVO.

This activity is provided by Med Learning Group. This activity is co-provided by Ultimate Medical Academy/CCM.
This activity is supported by an educational grant from Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

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Scientific Council

Neil M. Bressler, MD

James P. Gills Professor of Ophthalmology
Professor of Ophthalmology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins Medicine
Baltimore, MD

A. Paul Chous, MA, OD, FAAO

Specializing in Diabetes Eye Care & Education, Chous Eye Care Associates
Adjunct Professor of Optometry, Western University of Health Sciences
AOA Representative, National Diabetes Education Program
Tacoma, WA

Steven Ferrucci, OD, FAAO

Chief of Optometry, Sepulveda VA Medical Center
Professor, Southern California College of Optometry at Marshall B. Ketchum University
Sepulveda, CA

Julia A. Haller, MD

Ophthalmologist-in-Chief
Wills Eye Hospital
Philadelphia, PA

Allen C. Ho, MD, FACS

Director, Retina Research
Wills Eye Hospital
Professor and Chair of the Department of Ophthalmology
Thomas Jefferson University Hospitals
Philadelphia, PA

Charles C. Wykoff, MD, PhD

Director of Research, Retina Consultants of Houston
Associate Professor of Clinical Ophthalmology
Blanton Eye Institute & Houston Methodist Hospital
Houston, TX